Thursday, August 28, 2014

Exam Resource: ECPE & CPE Expression Booster

Garagani-Robertson Language Schools

E.C.P.E. Michigan & C.P.E. Cambridge Proficiency Expression Booster

These notes can be used as a basis for boosting your expressions in (C2) E.C.P.E. and C.P.E. compositions and interviews.

Αυτές οι σημειώσεις μπορούν να χρησιμοποιηθούν ως βάση για την ώθηση εκφράσεις σας σε (C2) ECPE και C.P.E. συνθέσεις και συνεντεύξεις.


Opening phrases:
It is often said / argued that ...
It is a fact that ...
Over the past few years, it seems that ...
Recently, we have all become concerned that ...
In the past, people ... but now...
These days, it seems that / people are becoming aware that ...

Time:
in contemporary times
in modern times
in antiquity
since the industrial revolution
since the dawn of time

Examples:
To exemplify, …
A is an example of B
Education, for instance, could be improved.

Listing arguments:
To begin with,…
A second area to consider is ...
Another point to consider is ...
Finally, … should (also) be considered.
Finally, it is clear that ...

Results:
This, in turn, may lead to …
One possible outcome of this situation is that …
Thus / Therefore / Hence / Consequently, …
This is bound to result in …

Problems & Negative Results:
the situation has come to a head
economic burden
count against
aggravate / exacerbate the situation
take a toll on sth
have grievances
be in grave danger
come to grief
wreak havoc on
vicious circle
be fraught with peril / danger
be at stake
be in jeopardy
be at odds with
a double edged sword
the situation is getting out of hand
people fall into the trap of doing sth
serious (/negative) repercussions
adverse consequences
detrimental effects
render sth impossible
a negative impact on
dire consequences

Changing the topic:
Turning to the question of ...
With regard to ...
On the question of ...
Another point to consider is ...

Contrast:
However / Nonetheless /    Nevertheless, …
Despite / In spite of …
Not withstanding the fact that …
Although it is often seen as an insoluble problem, there are viable solutions.

Support:
subscribe to an idea
be a(n) ardent (/fervent/passionate) supporter (/advocate) of (doing) sth
Many embrace the idea that…
A bewildering number of people advocate that…
Many would go to any lengths to prove the opposite.

Disagree:
go against the grain
Many are conscientious objectors to the idea that…
Many take exception to the idea that…
Many are at odds with this point of view.

Action:
clamp down on
take austere measures
ameliorate sth
the current situation requires / necessitates immediate action
rectify sth
put a ban on sth
be banned from (doing) sth
viable / feasible solution
set a plan in motion
do sth as  a last resort
the onus is on sby to do sth   

Adding to a point:
Additionally / Moreover / Furthermore, …
A further contributory factor is that …
This problem is further exacerbated by …
This problem should be considered in conjunction with …
A & B go hand in hand   

Solutions:
Fortunately, there are solutions to this problem, one of which is the idea of …
There are many ways by which this problem can be dealt with. Firstly, …
There are several ways by which people can deal with the problem at hand. One idea is to … . Another is to … . A final solution could be … .
Those who are aware of the problem are, by and large, determined to resolve it. This can only be made possible, however, by / if …
reap the benefits
an effective deterrent
innovative ideas
implement new policy / legislation
instigate changes

Conclusions:
To recapitulate, it seems that …
On balance, it appears that the advantages far outweigh the disadvantages.
By and large, it seems that people have good reason to be quite pessimistic about…
Success or failure seems to be contingent on how much the general population really cares.
It seems that the onus is on us / the government / the authorities to do something about this issue and redress the balance.
On the whole, …

Weighing up arguments:
Some of the pluses and minuses should be looked at.
The benefits are offset by some major problems.
While it is true that ..., it must not be forgotten that ...
Although it could be argued that ..., it is also a fact that … .
On the one hand ..., but on the other hand ...
It is important to balance (a positive point) against (a negative point)

Opinions:
For my part,
It is widely believed that…
There is little / no doubt that…
It goes without saying that…


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